**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**731

# Search results for: Relative centroid.

##### 731 A Centroid Ranking Approach Based Fuzzy MCDM Model

**Abstract:**

This paper suggests ranking alternatives under fuzzy MCDM (multiple criteria decision making) via an centroid based ranking approach, where criteria are classified to benefit qualitative, benefit quantitative and cost quantitative ones. The ratings of alternatives versus qualitative criteria and the importance weights of all criteria are assessed in linguistic values represented by fuzzy numbers. The membership function for the final fuzzy evaluation value of each alternative can be developed through α-cuts and interval arithmetic of fuzzy numbers. The distance between the original point and the relative centroid is applied to defuzzify the final fuzzy evaluation values in order to rank alternatives. Finally a numerical example demonstrates the computation procedure of the proposed model.

**Keywords:**
Fuzzy MCDM,
Criteria,
Fuzzy number,
Ranking,
Relative centroid.

##### 730 Interactive, Topic-Oriented Search Support by a Centroid-Based Text Categorisation

**Authors:**
Mario Kubek,
Herwig Unger

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Search algorithm,
centroid,
query,
keyword,
cooccurrence,
categorisation.

##### 729 Enhanced Weighted Centroid Localization Algorithm for Indoor Environments

**Authors:**
I. Nižetić Kosović,
T. Jagušt

**Abstract:**

Lately, with the increasing number of location-based applications, demand for highly accurate and reliable indoor localization became urgent. This is a challenging problem, due to the measurement variance which is the consequence of various factors like obstacles, equipment properties and environmental changes in complex nature of indoor environments. In this paper we propose low-cost custom-setup infrastructure solution and localization algorithm based on the Weighted Centroid Localization (WCL) method. Localization accuracy is increased by several enhancements: calibration of RSSI values gained from wireless nodes, repetitive measurements of RSSI to exclude deviating values from the position estimation, and by considering orientation of the device according to the wireless nodes. We conducted several experiments to evaluate the proposed algorithm. High accuracy of ~1m was achieved.

**Keywords:**
Indoor environment,
received signal strength indicator,
weighted centroid localization,
wireless localization.

##### 728 The Riemann Barycenter Computation and Means of Several Matrices

**Authors:**
Miklos Palfia

**Abstract:**

An iterative definition of any n variable mean function is given in this article, which iteratively uses the two-variable form of the corresponding two-variable mean function. This extension method omits recursivity which is an important improvement compared with certain recursive formulas given before by Ando-Li-Mathias, Petz- Temesi. Furthermore it is conjectured here that this iterative algorithm coincides with the solution of the Riemann centroid minimization problem. Certain simulations are given here to compare the convergence rate of the different algorithms given in the literature. These algorithms will be the gradient and the Newton mehod for the Riemann centroid computation.

**Keywords:**
Means,
matrix means,
operator means,
geometric mean,
Riemannian center of mass.

##### 727 Capacitance Models of AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

**Authors:**
A. Douara,
N. Kermas,
B. Djellouli

**Abstract:**

In this study, we report calculations of gate capacitance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with nextnano device simulation software. We have used a physical gate capacitance model for III-V FETs that incorporates quantum capacitance and centroid capacitance in the channel. These simulations explore various device structures with different values of barrier thickness and channel thickness. A detailed understanding of the impact of gate capacitance in HEMTs will allow us to determine their role in future 10 nm physical gate length node.

**Keywords:**
AlGaN/GaN,
centroid capacitance,
gate capacitance,
HEMT,
quantum capacitance.

##### 726 The New Relative Efficiency Based on the Least Eigenvalue in Generalized Linear Model

**Authors:**
Chao Yuan,
Bao Guang Tian

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Generalized linear model,
generalized relative coefficient,
least eigenvalue,
relative efficiency.

##### 725 Automatic Segmentation of the Clean Speech Signal

**Authors:**
M. A. Ben Messaoud,
A. Bouzid,
N. Ellouze

**Abstract:**

Speech Segmentation is the measure of the change point detection for partitioning an input speech signal into regions each of which accords to only one speaker. In this paper, we apply two features based on multi-scale product (MP) of the clean speech, namely the spectral centroid of MP, and the zero crossings rate of MP. We focus on multi-scale product analysis as an important tool for segmentation extraction. The MP is based on making the product of the speech wavelet transform coefficients (WTC). We have estimated our method on the Keele database. The results show the effectiveness of our method. It indicates that the two features can find word boundaries, and extracted the segments of the clean speech.

**Keywords:**
Speech segmentation,
Multi-scale product,
Spectral
centroid,
Zero crossings rate.

##### 724 A Study of Relationship between WBGT and Relative Humidity to Worker Performance

**Authors:**
A.R. Ismail,
M. R. A. Rani,
Z. K. M. Makhbul,
M. J. M. Nor,
M. N. A. Rahman

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
WBGT,
Relative Humidity,
Comfort,
Productivity.

##### 723 Ranking Fuzzy Numbers Based On Epsilon-Deviation Degree

**Authors:**
Vincent F. Yu,
Ha Thi Xuan Chi

**Abstract:**

Nejad and Mashinchi (2011) proposed a revision for ranking fuzzy numbers based on the areas of the left and the right sides of a fuzzy number. However, this method still has some shortcomings such as lack of discriminative power to rank similar fuzzy numbers and no guarantee the consistency between the ranking of fuzzy numbers and the ranking of their images. To overcome these drawbacks, we propose an epsilon-deviation degree method based on the left area and the right area of a fuzzy number, and the concept of the centroid point. The main advantage of the new approach is the development of an innovative index value which can be used to consistently evaluate and rank fuzzy numbers. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the efficiency and superiority of the proposed method.

**Keywords:**
Ranking fuzzy numbers,
Centroid,
Deviation degree.

##### 722 The Relative Efficiency Based on the MSE in Generalized Ridge Estimate

**Authors:**
Chao Yuan,
Bao Guang Tian

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Ridge estimate,
generalized ridge estimate,
MSE,
relative efficiency.

##### 721 The Study of Relative Efficiency in Growth Curve Model

**Authors:**
Nan Chen,
Baoguang Tian

**Abstract:**

In this paper, some relative efficiency have been discussed, including the LSE estimate with respect to BLUE in curve model. Four new kinds of relative efficiency have defined, and their upper bounds have been discussed.

**Keywords:**
Relative efficiency,
LSE estimate,
BLUE estimate,
Upper bound,
Curve model.

##### 720 Relative Navigation with Laser-Based Intermittent Measurement for Formation Flying Satellites

**Authors:**
Jongwoo Lee,
Dae-Eun Kang,
Sang-Young Park

**Abstract:**

This study presents a precise relative navigational method for satellites flying in formation using laser-based intermittent measurement data. The measurement data for the relative navigation between two satellites consist of a relative distance measured by a laser instrument and relative attitude angles measured by attitude determination. The relative navigation solutions are estimated by both the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF). The solutions estimated by the EKF may become inaccurate or even diverge as measurement outage time gets longer because the EKF utilizes a linearization approach. However, this study shows that the UKF with the appropriate scaling parameters provides a stable and accurate relative navigation solutions despite the long measurement outage time and large initial error as compared to the relative navigation solutions of the EKF. Various navigation results have been analyzed by adjusting the scaling parameters of the UKF.

**Keywords:**
Satellite relative navigation,
laser-based measurement,
intermittent measurement,
unscented kalman filter.

##### 719 Solutions of Fuzzy Transportation Problem Using Best Candidates Method and Different Ranking Techniques

**Authors:**
M. S. Annie Christi

**Abstract:**

Transportation Problem (TP) is based on supply and demand of commodities transported from one source to the different destinations. Usual methods for finding solution of TPs are North-West Corner Rule, Least Cost Method Vogel’s Approximation Method etc. The transportation costs tend to vary at each time. We can use fuzzy numbers which would give solution according to this situation. In this study the Best Candidate Method (BCM) is applied. For ranking Centroid Ranking Technique (CRT) and Robust Ranking Technique have been adopted to transform the fuzzy TP and the above methods are applied to EDWARDS Vacuum Company, Crawley, in West Sussex in the United Kingdom. A Comparative study is also given**.** We see that the transportation cost can be minimized by the application of CRT under BCM.

**Keywords:**
Best candidates method,
centroid ranking technique,
robust ranking technique,
transportation problem,
fuzzy transportation problem.

##### 718 Information Filtering using Index Word Selection based on the Topics

**Authors:**
Takeru YOKOI,
Hidekazu YANAGIMOTO,
Sigeru OMATU

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Information Filtering,
Sparse NMF,
Index wordSelection,
User Profile,
Chi-squared Measure

##### 717 Estimation of Relative Self-Localization Based On Natural Landmark and an Improved SURF

**Authors:**
Xing Xiong,
Byung-Jae Choi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Relative Self-Localization Posture,
SURF,
Natural Landmark,
Interest Point.

##### 716 The Relative Efficiency of Parameter Estimation in Linear Weighted Regression

**Authors:**
Baoguang Tian,
Nan Chen

**Abstract:**

A new relative efficiency in linear model in reference is instructed into the linear weighted regression, and its upper and lower bound are proposed. In the linear weighted regression model, for the best linear unbiased estimation of mean matrix respect to the least-squares estimation, two new relative efficiencies are given, and their upper and lower bounds are also studied.

**Keywords:**
Linear weighted regression,
Relative efficiency,
Mean matrix,
Trace.

##### 715 Two New Relative Efficiencies of Linear Weighted Regression

**Authors:**
Shuimiao Wan,
Chao Yuan,
Baoguang Tian

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Linear weighted regression,
Relative efficiency,
Lower bound,
Parameter estimation.

##### 714 Range-Free Localization Schemes for Wireless Sensor Networks

**Authors:**
R. Khadim,
M. Erritali,
A. Maaden

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Wireless Sensor Networks,
Node Localization,
Centroid Algorithm,
DV–Hop Algorithm,
Amorphous Algorithm.

##### 713 An Empirical Formula for Seismic Test of Telecommunication Equipments

**Authors:**
Young Hoon Lee,
Bong Jin Kang,
Won Ho Kang

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Empirical formula,
First natural frequency,
Seismic test,
Telecommunication equipments.

##### 712 Oil Displacement by Water in Hauterivian Sandstone Reservoir of Kashkari Oil Field

**Authors:**
A. J. Nazari,
S. Honma

**Abstract:**

This paper evaluates oil displacement by water in Hauterivian sandstone reservoir of Kashkari oil field in North of Afghanistan. The core samples of this oil field were taken out from well No-21^{st}, and the relative permeability and fractional flow are analyzed. Steady state flow laboratory experiments are performed to empirically obtain the fractional flow curves and relative permeability in different water saturation ratio. The relative permeability represents the simultaneous flow behavior in the reservoir. The fractional flow approach describes the individual phases as fractional of the total flow. The fractional flow curve interprets oil displacement by water, and from the tangent of fractional flow curve can find out the average saturation behind the water front flow saturation. Therefore, relative permeability and fractional flow curves are suitable for describing the displacement of oil by water in a petroleum reservoir. The effects of irreducible water saturation, residual oil saturation on the displaceable amount of oil are investigated through Buckley-Leveret analysis.

**Keywords:**
Fractional flow,
oil displacement,
relative permeability,
simultaneously flow.

##### 711 Estimation of Relative Permeabilities and Capillary Pressures in Shale Using Simulation Method

**Authors:**
F. C. Amadi,
G. C. Enyi,
G. Nasr

**Abstract:**

Relative permeabilities are practical factors that are used to correct the single phase Darcy’s law for application to multiphase flow. For effective characterisation of large-scale multiphase flow in hydrocarbon recovery, relative permeability and capillary pressures are used. These parameters are acquired via special core flooding experiments. Special core analysis (SCAL) module of reservoir simulation is applied by engineers for the evaluation of these parameters. But, core flooding experiments in shale core sample are expensive and time consuming before various flow assumptions are achieved for instance Darcy’s law. This makes it imperative for the application of coreflooding simulations in which various analysis of relative permeabilities and capillary pressures of multiphase flow can be carried out efficiently and effectively at a relative pace. This paper presents a Sendra software simulation of core flooding to achieve to relative permeabilities and capillary pressures using different correlations. The approach used in this study was three steps. The first step, the basic petrophysical parameters of Marcellus shale sample such as porosity was determined using laboratory techniques. Secondly, core flooding was simulated for particular scenario of injection using different correlations. And thirdly the best fit correlations for the estimation of relative permeability and capillary pressure was obtained. This research approach saves cost and time and very reliable in the computation of relative permeability and capillary pressures at steady or unsteady state, drainage or imbibition processes in oil and gas industry when compared to other methods.

**Keywords:**
Special core analysis (SCAL),
relative permeability,
capillary pressures,
drainage,
imbibition.

##### 710 Characterization of 3D-MRP for Analyzing of Brain Balancing Index (BBI) Pattern

**Authors:**
N. Fuad,
M. N. Taib,
R. Jailani,
M. E. Marwan

**Abstract:**

This paper discusses on power spectral density (PSD) characteristics which are extracted from three-dimensional (3D) electroencephalogram (EEG) models. The EEG signal recording was conducted on 150 healthy subjects. Development of 3D EEG models involves pre-processing of raw EEG signals and construction of spectrogram images. Then, the values of maximum PSD were extracted as features from the model. These features are analyzed using mean relative power (MRP) and different mean relative power (DMRP) technique to observe the pattern among different brain balancing indexes. The results showed that by implementing these techniques, the pattern of brain balancing indexes can be clearly observed. Some patterns are indicates between index 1 to index 5 for left frontal (LF) and right frontal (RF).

**Keywords:**
Power spectral density,
3D EEG model,
brain balancing,
mean relative power,
different mean relative power.

##### 709 Control Configuration Selection and Controller Design for Multivariable Processes Using Normalized Gain

**Authors:**
R. Hanuma Naik,
D. V. Ashok Kumar,
K. S. R. Anjaneyulu

**Abstract:**

Several of the practical industrial control processes are multivariable processes. Due to the relation amid the variables (interaction), delay in the loops, it is very intricate to design a controller directly for these processes. So first, the interaction of the variables is analyzed using Relative Normalized Gain Array (RNGA), which considers the time constant, static gain and delay time of the processes. Based on the effect of RNGA, relative gain array (RGA) and NI, the pair (control configuration) of variables to be controlled by decentralized control is selected. The equivalent transfer function (ETF) of the process model is estimated as first order process with delay using the corresponding elements in the Relative gain array and Relative average residence time array (RARTA) of the processes. Secondly, a decentralized Proportional- Integral (PI) controller is designed for each ETF simply using frequency response specifications. Finally, the performance and robustness of the algorithm is comparing with existing related approaches to validate the effectiveness of the projected algorithm.

**Keywords:**
Decentralized control,
interaction,
Multivariable processes,
relative normalized gain array,
relative average residence time array,
steady state gain.

##### 708 Relative Mapping Errors of Linear Time Invariant Systems Caused By Particle Swarm Optimized Reduced Order Model

**Authors:**
G. Parmar,
S. Mukherjee,
R. Prasad

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Order reduction,
Particle swarm optimization,
Relative mapping error,
Stability.

##### 707 Design of Digital Differentiator to Optimize Relative Error

**Authors:**
Vinita V. Sondur,
Vilas B. Sondur,
Narasimha H. Ayachit

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Differentiator,
equiripple,
error distribution,
relative
error.

##### 706 On the Multiplicity of Discriminants of Relative Quadratic Extensions of Quintic Fields

**Authors:**
Schehrazad Selmane

**Abstract:**

According to Hermite there exists only a finite number of number fields having a given degree, and a given value of the discriminant, nevertheless this number is not known generally. The determination of a maximum number of number fields of degree 10 having a given discriminant that contain a subfield of degree 5 having a fixed class number, narrow class number and Galois group is the purpose of this work. The constructed lists of the first coincidences of 52 (resp. 50, 40, 48, 22, 6) nonisomorphic number fields with same discriminant of degree 10 of signature (6,2) (resp. (4,3), (8,1), (2,4), (0,5), (10,0)) containing a quintic field. For each field in the lists, we indicate its discriminant, the discriminant of its subfield, a relative polynomial generating the field over its quintic field and its relative discriminant, the corresponding polynomial over Q and its Galois closure are presented with concluding remarks.

**Keywords:**
Discriminant,
nonisomorphic fields,
quintic fields,
relative quadratic extensions.

##### 705 Effect of Relative Permeability on Well Testing Behavior of Naturally Fractured Lean Gas Condensate Reservoirs

**Authors:**
G.H. Montazeri,
Z. Dastkhan,
H. Aliabadi

**Abstract:**

Gas condensate Reservoirs show complicated thermodynamic behavior when their pressure reduces to under dew point pressure. Condensate blockage around the producing well cause significant reduction of production rate as well bottom-hole pressure drops below saturation pressure. The main objective of this work was to examine the well test analysis of naturally fractured lean gas condensate reservoir and investigate the effect of condensate formed around the well-bore on behavior of single phase pseudo pressure and its derivative curves. In this work a naturally fractured lean gas condensate reservoir is simulated with compositional simulator. Different sensitivity analysis done on Corry parameters and result of simulator is feed to analytical well testing software. For consideration of these phenomena eighteen compositional models with Capillary number effect are constructed. Matrix relative permeability obeys Corry relative permeability and relative permeability in fracture is linear. Well testing behavior of these models are studied and interpreted. Results show different sensitivity analysis on relative permeability of matrix does not have strong effect on well testing behavior even most part of the matrix around the well is occupied with condensate.

**Keywords:**
Lean gas,
fractured condensate reservoir,
capillary number,
well testing analysis,
relative permeability.

##### 704 Comparing Spontaneous Hydrolysis Rates of Activated Models of DNA and RNA

**Authors:**
Mohamed S. Sasi,
Adel M. Mlitan,
Abdulfattah M. Alkherraz

**Abstract:**

This research project aims to investigate difference in relative rates concerning phosphoryl transfer relevant to biological catalysis of DNA and RNA in the pH-independent reactions. Activated Models of DNA and RNA for alkyl-aryl phosphate diesters (with 4-nitrophenyl as a good leaving group) have successfully been prepared to gather kinetic parameters. Eyring plots for the pH– independent hydrolysis of 1 and 2 were established at different temperatures in the range 100–160 °C. These measurements have been used to provide a better estimate for the difference in relative rates between the reactivity of DNA and RNA cleavage. Eyring plot gave an extrapolated rate of kH2O = 1 × 10-10 s -1 for 1 (RNA model) and 2 (DNA model) at 25°C. Comparing the reactivity of RNA model and DNA model shows that the difference in relative rates in the pH-independent reactions is surprisingly very similar at 25°. This allows us to obtain chemical insights into how biological catalysts such as enzymes may have evolved to perform their current functions.

**Keywords:**
DNA & RNA Models,
Relative Rates,
Reactivity.

##### 703 FPGA based Relative Distance Measurement using Stereo Vision Technology

**Authors:**
Manasi Pathade,
Prachi Kadam,
Renuka Kulkarni,
Tejas Teredesai

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Stereo Vision,
Relative Distance Measurement,
Indexed Histogram,
Real time FPGA Image Processor

##### 702 Flow Discharge Determination in Straight Compound Channels Using ANNs

**Authors:**
A. Zahiri,
A. A. Dehghani

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
ANN model,
compound channels,
divided channel method (DCM),
flow rating curve